Phytochemical assay, potential of antimalarial and antioxidant activities of green tea extract and its fraction

Fanny Rahardja


Objective : The research objective was to evaluate the phytochemical compounds, the antioxidant and anti-malarial activity of green tea extract and its fraction.


Methods : The antioxidant activity were measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity used in vitro laboratories prospective experimental design and completely randomized design, using ethanol extract, hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol fraction, and water fraction of green tea in 7 levels of concentration compared to epicatechin (EC). The data were analyzed using linear regression analysis, and were continued by determined Inhibitory Concentration50 (IC50). The anti-malarial activity of green tea fractions were compared to artemisinin. The data were analyzed using probit analysis, and were continued by determined IC50 .

Result: The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity (IC50) was the fraction of ethyl acetate 2,184 µg/ml. The anti-malarial activity IC50of water and ethyl acetate fraction, ethanol extract and butanol fraction were 0,000090 µg/mL,0,003 µg/mL, 0,006 µg/mL, 0,011 µg/ml respectively.

Conclusion : Extract and fractions of green tea have potential anti-malarial and antioxidant properties.

Full Text:



Ravikumar S, Inbaneson SJ, Suganthi P. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of South Indian medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum. Asian Pacific J Tropical Biomed. 2012; 2012:1-9

Sha’a KK, Oguche S, Watila IM, Ikpa TF. In vitro antimalarial activity of the extracts of Vernonia amygdalina commonly used in traditional medicine in Nigeria. Sci World J. 2011;6(2):5-9.

World Health Organization (WHO). World Malaria Report 2011. World Health Organization Press. Geneva, Switzerland, 2011.

World Health Organization (WHO). World Malaria Report 2012. World Health Organization Press. Geneva, Switzerland, 2012.

Keller CC, Kremsner PG, Hittner JB, Misukonis MA, Weinberg JB, Perkins DJ. Elevated nitric oxide production in children with malarial anemia: Hemozoin-induced nitricoxide synthase type 2 transcripts and nitric oxide in blood mononuclear cells. Infect Immun. 2004;72:4868–4873.

M. Mart´ınez-Cayuela. Oxygen free radicals and human disease. Biochimie. 1995;77(3):147–161.

Guha, M.; Kumar, S.; Choubey, V.; Maity, P.; Bandyopadhyay, U. Apoptosis in liver during malaria: Role of oxidative stress and implication of mitochondrial pathway. FASEB J. 2006;20:E439–E449.

Meshnick SR. Artemisinin: mechanisms of action, resistance and toxicity. Int J Parasitol. 2002; 32(13):1655-60.

Dondorp AM, Fairhurst RM, Slutsker L, MacArthur JR, Breman JG, Guerin PJ, Wellems TE, Ringwald P, Newman RD, Plowe CV. The threat of artemisinin-resistant malaria. N Engl J Med. 2011; 365(12):1073-75

Mutabingwa TK. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs): best hope for malaria treatment but inaccessible to the needy. Acta Trop. 2005; 95(3):305-15.

Santosh K. Katiyar, Craig A. Elmets. Green tea polyphenolic antioxidants and skin photoprotection. Int J Oncol.2001;18(6):1307-1313

Ikeda I, Kobayashi M, Hamada T, Tsuda K, Goto H, Imaizumi K, Nozawa A, Sugimoto A, Kakuda T.Heat-Epimerized Tea Catechin Rich In Gallocatechin Gallateand Catechin Gallate Are More Effective To Inhibit Cholesterol Absorption Than TeaCatechin Rich In Epigallocatechin Gallate and Epicatechin Gallate. J Agric Food Chem.2003;51:7303-7307.

Yanagimoto K, Ochi H, Lee KG, Shibamoto Y. Antioxidative Activities of Volatile Extract from Green Tea, Oolong Tea and Black Tea. J Agric Food Chem.2003; 51:7396-7401.

Su YL, Leung LK, Huang Y, Chen ZY. Stability of Tea Theaflavin and Catechin. Food Chem. 2003;83(2):189-195.

Yokozawa T, Cho EJ, Nakagawa T. Influence of Green Tea Polyphenol in Rats WithArginine-Induced Renal Failure. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51: 2421-2425.

Widowati W, Herlina T, Ratnawati H, Mozef T, Risdian C. Antioxidant and platelet aggragation inhibitor activities of black tea (Camelia sinensis L.) extract and fraction. Med plants. 2011;3(1):21-26

Widowati W, Ratnawati H, Rusdi UD, Winarno W, Kasim F. The antiplatelet aggregation effect of extract and ethyl acetate fraction of velvet bean seed (Mucuna pruriens L.) in dyslipidemic rat. Agritech. 2011; 31(1):52-59

Widowati W, Mozef T, Risdian C, Yelliantty Y. Anticancer and free radical scavenging potency of Catharanthusroseus, Dendrophthoepetandra, Piper betle and Curcuma mangga extracts in breast cancer cell lines. Oxidant Antioxid MedSci. 2013;2(2):137-142

Widowati W, Wijaya L, Wargasetia TL, Yelliantty Y. Antioxidant, anticancer, and apoptosis-inducing effects of Piper extracts in HeLa cells. J ExpIntegrat Med. 2013; 3(3):225-23.

Widowati W, Ratnawati H, Rusdi UD, Winarno W, Immanuel V. Phytochemica lassay and antiplatelet activity of fractions of velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens L.). HAYATI J Biosci. 2010;17(2);85-90

Frum Y, Viljoen AM. In vitro 5-lipoxygenase and anti-oxidant Activities of south African medicinal plants commonly used topically for skin disease. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;19:329-335.

do Ce´u de Madureira M, Martins AP, Gomes M, Paiva J. da Cunha AP, do Rosa´rio V. Antimalarial activity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in S. Tome´ and Prı´ncipe islands. J Ethnopharmacol.2002;81:23-29

Sha’a KK, Oguche S, Watila IM, Ikpa TF. In vitro antimalarial activity of the extracts of Vernonia amygdalina commonly used in traditional medicine in Nigeria. Sci World J. 2011;6(2):5-9.

World Health Organization. In vitro micro-test (mark-III) for the assessment of the response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, amodiaquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and artemisinin. WHO Int. 2001:WHO/CTD/MAL/97.20 Rev. 2.

Ramalhete C, Lopes D, Mulhovo S, Rosário VE, Ferreira MJU. Antimalarial activity of some plants traditionally used in mozambique. Workshop Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterapêuticas nos Trópicos. 2008;29- 31.

Chan EW, Lim YY, Chew YL. Antioxidant activity of

Camellia sinensis leaves and tea from a lowland plantation in Malaysia. Food Chem. 2007;102:1214–22.

Camouse MM, Domingo DS, Swain FR, Conrad EP, Matsui MS, Maes D, Declercq L, Cooper KD, Stevens SR, Baron ED. Topical application of green and white tea extracts provides protection from solar-simulated ultraviolet light in human skin. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18(6):522-6.

Chan EWC, Soh EY, Tie PP, Law YP. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis. Pharmacognosy Res. 2011; 3(4): 266–272

Sharma A, Wang R, Zhou W. Functional foods from green tea. In: Shahidi F, editor. Functional foods of the east. United States: CRC Press. 2011;173–95.

Senanayake SPJN. Green tea extract: Chemistry, antioxidant properties and food applications – A review. J Func Foods. 2013;5(4):1529–1541

Nanjo F, Goto K, Seto R, Suzuki M, Sakai M, Hara Y. Scavenging effects of tea catechins and their derivatives on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. Free Radical Biol Med.1996;21:895–902.

Widowati W. Phytochemical assay and antioxidant potency of sappan wood ethanolic extract (Caesalpinia sappan L.). JKM. 2011;11(1):23-31

Koleckar V1, Kubikova K, Rehakova Z, Kuca K, Jun D, Jahodar L, Opletal L. Condensed and hydrolysable tannins as antioxidants influencing the health. Mini-Rev Med Chem.2008;8:436–47

Nijveldt RJ, van Nood E, van Hoorn DEC, Boelens PG, van Norren K, van Leeuwen PAM. Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications1–3. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:418–25.

Middleton EJ. Effect of plant flavonoids on immune and inflammatory cell function. Adv Exp Med Biol.1998;439:175–82.

Lim SS, Kim H-S, Lee D-U. In vitro Antimalarial Activity of Flavonoids and Chalcones. Bull. Korean Chem Soc. 2007;28(12):2495-2497

Amic D, Davidovic-Amic D, Beslo D, Rastija V, Lucic B, Trinajstic. SAR and QSAR of the Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids. Current Med Chem. 2007;14:827-845.

Slavic K, Derbyshire ET, Naftalin RJ, Krishna S dan Staines HM. Comparison of Effects of Green Tea Catechins on Apicomplexan Hexose Transporters and Mammalian Orthologues. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2009;168:113-116.

Sannella AR, Messori L, Casini A, Vincieri F, Bilia AR, Majori G. Antimalarial properties of green tea. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;353:177–81.

Becker K,Tilley L, Vennerstrom JL, Roberts D, Rorerson S, Ginsburg H. Oxidative stress in malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes: host-parasite interactions. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:163-189.

Nethengwe M, Opoku AR, Dludla PV, Madida KT, Shonhai A, Smith P, Singh M. Larvicidal, antipyretic and antiplasmodial activity of some Zulu medicinal plants. J Med Plants Res. 2012; 6(7):1255-1262.

ChukwujekwuJC, Lategan CA, Smith PJ, Van Heerden FR, Van Staden J. Antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of isolated sesquiterpene lactones from the acetone leaf extract of Vernoniacolorata. South African J Botany. 2009;75:176-179.

Hilou A, Nacoulma OG,GuiguemdeTR. In vivo antimalarial activities of extracts from Amaranthusspinosus L. and Boerhaaviaerecta L. in mice. JEthnopharmacol. 2006;103:236-240.

Omoregie ES,Osagie AU. Phytochemical screening and anti-anemic effect of Jatrophatanjorensis leaf in protein malnourished rats. Plant Archives. 2007;7: 509-516.

Omoregie ES, Pal A,SisodiaB. In vitro antimalarial and cytotoxic activities of leaf extracts of Vernoniaamygdalina (Del.). Nigerian J BasicAppl Sci. 2011; 19(1): 121-126.


  • There are currently no refbacks.